Playing the board game Diplomacy

No-Press / No communication

Kraus and Lehman (1995

Fabregues and Sierra (2011)

Jonge et al. (2018)

Paquette et al. (2019)

Anthony et al. (2020)

Gray et al. (2021)

Bakhtin et al. (2021

Jacob et al. (2021)

Structured Communication

DARPA recently announced the SHADE Program, which will explore bots that can communicate, though with a constrained communication language, rather than full natural language.


Two studies have looked at the language used in human games, to see if there are markers of deception. Peskov et al. (2020 introduced a dataset where players indicated whether they were lying while playing the game and recipients indicated whether they thought they were being lied to. This is nice because it is more reliable than post-hoc analysis. Humans and machines are not that great at detecting lies (Lie F1 of at most 27), though the errors are quite different and overall performance is fairly similar. However, they only use a single feature of the game state, and only train on the 9 labeled games (rather than pre-training or similar on other resources).

Niculae et al. (2015)